by Gloria Munõz Ramirez, La Jornada
Zapatista Caracol 2
Oventic, The Highlands, Chiapas, Mexico
A report by Gloria Munoz Ramirez in the Mexican daily newspaper La Jornada on the situation of the zapatista movement in the Highlands of Chiapas. Taken from Indymedia Chiapas September 2004 and translated by Edinburgh-Chiapas Solidarity Group.
It’s midsummer and the dawn and dusk in Oventic is accompanied by a cold mist which totally covers the caracol of the Altos zone. The home of tzotszil zapatistas. It is a rebel region of poverty and extreme marginalisation and the zapatista territory which is most visited by people from all over the world. In the first year of automonous self government, 4,458 visitors came here from all parts of the world. It’s not a coincidence that this caracol has had the largest number of visitors. It is the nearest to San Cristobal de las Casas and from there you can reach Oventic in an hour along a tarmac road. It’s not only the fact that it is so close that attracts civil society. It is also because of the mystique of this zone, a special indigenous presence, a rebelliousness visible in every tzotzil face.
This caracol has the largest number of buildings and is possibly the largest of the five caracoles. On every visit to Oventic new buildings appear beside the long road which goes through the caracol, (co-operatives, the offices of the autonomous municipality and of the junta of good government, the health clinic, the auditorium and dormitories). The road ends up at the basketball pitch and at the zapatista primary/secondary school which bears the name of SERAZLN – The autonomous education system of the zapatista national liberation. The School
|Josue and Ofelia are graduates of SERAZLN and are currently members of its general co-ordinating body. They explain that education is one of the demands of the EZLN and since 1994 the zapatistas have looked for a way of organising education in their communities. In the beginning, they contacted teachers who worked in the state schools and invited them to participate in a zapatista kind of education. More than 100 state school teachers came to this meeting, but it was difficult to work with them, not because the teachers did not want to work with us, but because they were used to being paid.
Because of this the zapatistas invited young people in the zone to come on 12 December 1998 to Oventic. They were students who were still not accustomed to earning a wage. Nineteen young people came on that day. They were convinced of the need for education and they received training over the following two years before enlisting in the secondary school. At last in September 2000 classes for the primary/secondary school were started. These classes were supported by people from civil society.
Planning for the courses was carried out collectively. There were endless meetings where people from all over the zone discussed the needs of the communities and planned for the courses and study programmes. In the secondary school there are classes in language, communication, maths, social sciences, natural sciences, humanities, tzotzil and production. In humanities, Josue explains, “we study the philosophy of zapatismo, reflect on our struggle and so the main aim is that young people finish their studies with a different vision for their lives . . . that is that they do not live for themselves alone but that they work for the collective good of the community and that they understand more about our struggle and who has ruled over and exploited us.
The education co-ordinators explain that after three years of study,”We can see that there is a greater understanding of the reality of our lives, that there is a growth in awareness and that students leave with a different mindset. It is not that they come here to be convinced about our struggle, what happens is that here they gain the tools to be able to recognise their rights and to stand up for themselves. Without any doubt education motivates our struggle and strengthens the autonomy of our people. The Church tells us that we are poor because it is God’s will. State education tells us that there are poor people and rich people and that poverty is our lot. But that is not so and education helps us to understand this”.
Josue and Ofelia realise that in spite of all their efforts there are not enough resources to educate all the people but their dream is “that everybody has a chance of studying, both indigenous and non indigenous people, zapatistas and non zapatistas. We all have a right to be educated”.
In Los Altos zone, when students finish their secondary education they are asked as part of their graduation what they can do to help their community. They choose to help in areas such as agroecology, primary education, supporting the offices of commerce, working in pharmacies etc. All are obliged to share with their community what they have learned. Two lots of students have now graduated. Out of the first lot of 21 pupils only three were female and only five females were in the second lot of 19 pupils. This is very little but Ofelia, a co-ordinator with SERAZLN says,”it is a small advance in communities where previously women have not had the right to be educated. There are communities where it is still the belief that women only exist to get married and raise children . . . that they cannot study or work outside the home. But little by little women are waking up and realizing that they have a right to take part in other experiences.”
And it is precisely through education that tzotzil women are beginning to see other opportunities. Ofelia explains,”We see that women have rights and we see the need to change some customs. So education makes men and women realize the importance of women’s work. This isn’t easy because people have to change how they think, but we are beginning to … autonomous education is the basis of the consciousness of our communities and arising from that we can change the situation of the indigenous woman, who is capable of doing any kind of work, not only being a mother and making handicrafts”.
This is the only one of the five zones which run secondary education (the other four have primary only). Josue says,” firstly we had to prepare promotors or teachers for the primaries. Now some of those who have graduated from secondary school give classes in the newly created primary schools. Thoughout this time the autonomous municipalities which make up Los Altos zone: San Andrew Sacamch’en de Los Pobres, San Juan de la Libertad, San Pedro Polho, Santa Catarina, Magdalenda de La Paz and San Juan Apostol Cancuc, organised primary education independent of each other with different projects. In the last year since the advent of the juntas of good government they have organised one education system for the whole zone. Now more than 100 education promotors give classes in as many communities.
This zone faces a different problem as regards education from the other zones. In Los Altos many state schoolteachers abandoned their schools and those schools were then run by the autonomous authorities. Many other schools have been built in the meantime and more are due to be built.
The secondary school was built by means of the US Schools for Chiapas project. It is a project with many challenges and is not without its problems, eg in order for pupils to board at school we need to feed the pupils and there aren’t enough resources, neither are there resources for all the school books and equipment needed. To lessen these problems the secondary school also runs courses in tzotzil for foreigners and the income from this is used to provide food for the students who also pay five pesos a month and a kilo of beans each fortnight towards their upkeep.
A new system of autonomous education is not without its difficulties but is is also a source of satisfaction and joy. “We are very happy because the graduates from secondary school are now giving classes in our primary schools, because the zapatista education system starts from below, because it is for all our communities and because the situation is not as bad as it was before”.
Autonomous education has to be for everyone, not only for indigenous people and not only for zapatistas. And not only for children. We also have an adult education system in this zone.” Josue and Ofelia explain that the aim is to change circumstances. Our communities have an obligation to struggle for change because we cannot wait for others to come and take charge of us and in this way education is the most powerful weapon our people possess. Healthcare
There are more than 100 people seen every day at the Guadalupana clinic in Oventic. Anastasio, an old zapatista tzotzil, is the general health co-ordinator at the clinic which was one of the first set up with only eight health promotors by the EZLN on 28 February 1992 before the armed uprising. Anastasio has only two years of primary schooling and says that it is now over12 years since the community asked him if he would undertake work in healthcare. He agreed to help the community and the struggle and is now the co-ordinator of one of the most ambitious zapatista health projects.
Nothing remains any more of the small clinic which looked after the insurgentes wounded during the war. But in the same place there is now a hospital clinic with an operating theatre, a dental room, a laboratory for clinical analysis, an eye clinic, a gynaecology clinic, a herbal laboratory, a pharmacy and hospital rooms. In this clinic and in two other health training centres in Magdalena and in Polho, more than 200 health promotors have studied and now work with the communities. Like other zapatista promotors none of them are paid although the community helps them by giving them food and supporting them when they go on courses. The promotors study anatomy, physiology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatments and above all preventative medicine, personal and collective hygiene and vaccination.
The nearby state hospitals Anastasio says, “do not take in those who are seriously ill, they would rather that they die somewhere else. We do take take them in this clinic whether they are zapatista or not and it is only if we cannot help them that we would take them elsewhere; that is why we need an ambulance”.
The clinic relies on the support of doctors and students who help with surgery and with teaching the promotors. “But when no one comes from outside we have to get on with it ourselves and so we study any medical books we can get,” says Lucio a health promotor who left his community, his family and his land to work full time in the clinic for the last eight years. He says, “Before we had nothing and many people died, most of them from illnesses which could be treated if caught in time. Many children died and because of this we began to organise our own healthcare because we could expect nothing from the state. Now there is a clinic in all eight of the municipalities in Los Altos as well as more than 300 community health houses which offer basic medicines. (Edinchiapas note : In fact our twinned autonomous municipality “16 de Febrero” in Los Altos are still working towards building their own clinic) The consultations are free for all who support the EZLN and others are only asked for a small contribution.
Anastasio explains that they are only able to perform minor surgery because they lack the equipment for major operations. This clinic with all its challenges is still one of the best organised and equipped in zapatista territory, and because of this they also treat zapatistas from other regions, from the jungle and the north of the state. The organisation of autonomous health has been resisted by state health projects to the extent that when a zapatista clinic starts up a state clinic is set up soon after nearby. Anastasio says, “they do this to put pressure on us hoping that people will go to them, but our people don’t go because they are treated badly in state clinics; they are not treated with respect and they are not given medicine and while they build these new government clinics, then they are always closed. Our clinics on the other hand operate 24 hours a day and everyone is treated the same”.
TB, respiratory problems, rheumatism, skin infections, malaria and typhoid are some of the illnesses of poverty we suffer and women also suffer miscarriages brought on by malnutrition and lack of prenatal care. Lucio says though, “Not so many people die as before, we have saved many lives, we take seriously ill people into hospital, we promote vaccination, we prepare our health promotors and in this way we move forward.”
Coffee, Honey, handicrafts: Commerce in Resistance
The zapatista communities in Los Altos have set up two coffee co-operatives – Mut Vitz (Hill of the Bird in Tzotzil) and Ya’chil Xojobal Chu’lcha’n (New Light of the Sky).
Mut Vitz was set up in 1997 with 694 members from the seven municipalities in the zone. Their coffee is certified as organic and is legalised for export from the port of Veracruz to Germany, the US, France, Spain, Switzerland and Italy. Unfortunately they have been unable to expand into the Mexican market other than into the state of Puebla. They don’t have equipment to grind and toast the coffee so the beans are transported whole.
The New Light of the Sky co-operative has around 900 members of whom 600 are refugees at Polho. They have just begun to export coffee and are working to open up markets.
The women also work collectively. Famous throughout the world for sewing and handicrafts, the tzotzil zapatista women who before the war offered their goods for sale in the racist streets of San Cristobal de Las Casas have now organised into co-operatives where they make and sell their products. The co-operatives Xulum Chon and Women for Dignity sell their textiles for fair prices earning income which is an important part of their family’s economy.
Polho: Seven years from home, isolated by violence.
More than 9,000 refugees who fled paramilitary violence live in Polho. They survive without land to cultivate and food and medicine is always scarce. The Red Cross has now left this zone, they say there is no longer a war and there is a lot of work to be done in Iraq. Here the displacement has created new forms of resistance and autonomy. Education and health is organised and co-operatives and other means of survival are created. In the last 12 months the autonomous authorities in this zone gave 2 and a half million pesos to feed the refugees in Polho, a not insubstantial sum of money but still not enough to feed the thousands who for the last seven years have been dreaming of returning home. According to the junta of good government, it is not easy to organise autonomy and even less so in conditions like in Polho.
The junta of good government say that after a year it is clear that they are able to govern, to work, to see and recognize problems. They have learned not to fall for the provocations of the state and political parties. Their experience has shown that those who first raise their fists, then lose politically. “We are holding on to the idea of resisting through peaceful means, although we know how to defend ourselves.”
Over the last year the junta says, “What we have learnt most is to negotiate, to co-ordinate the work of the junta with the municipalities. We know we can’t do it alone without the support of civil society nationally and internationally. We work from Monday to Sunday 24 hours a day and still we can’t catch up with everything but we are learning. Obeying and fulfilling our commitments. It is not easy. Nothing is easy.
We did not conduct a campaign nor propaganda to become a junta of good government. The people chose us as honest people and now we are committed. We do not have a fixed period of office in the junta, if the people say that we are no longer doing the job properly, then they will get rid of us and and replace us with others.
We dream that one day our rights will be recognised, that there will be a total change not only for indigenous people but for all the poor people of the world. This is not over yet. Here other people will be born, nor will they ask permission to follow their own path. That is what we dream.”
ZAPATISTA CARACOL 3 – LA GARRUCHA, TZELTAL JUNGLE ZONE, CHIAPAS, MEXICO
A report by Gloria Munoz Ramirez in the Mexican daily newspaper La Jornada on the situation of the zapatista movement in the Tzeltal Lacandona jungle zone of Chiapas. Taken from Indymedia Chiapas September 2004 and translated by Edinburgh-Chiapas Solidarity Group.
Communication technology has arrived in the Lacandon jungle. The Internet Cafe Cyber-Pozol, is the only public interenet in the Patiwitz canyon, and in the whole of the territories of resistance. As well as the cybernet service in the co-operative cafe in resistance ‘Smaliyel”, there is zapatista music, videos, bandanas, handicrafts, sweets, petrol and food for sale. Smaliyel is in the Caracol ‘Resistance towards a New Dawn’ in the first rebel zone opened to journalists in 1994. From here the whole world learnt about the Indian people who had taken up arms, the insurrection, their reasons and their sorrows. Today more than ten years later, there is another panorama.
When journalists first came to La Garrucha there was no internet, not even electricity. There was no autonomous clinic with dentist’s equipment, no autonomous laboratory, no ambulance, the school didn’t function, while a library was unimaginable. After the murder of Luis Donaldo Colosio in 1994 the future seemed more uncertain, the territory was shut off and the searchlights of the press moved out of the canada.
Miguel, three years old, is strolling through the zapatista shop and declares that Spiderman “is a Compa” (comrade). When the daily convoy of state soldiers passes, Miguel, now transformed into Spiderman, throws his webs at the soldiers from his hiding place in the bushes. His mother tells him off and he cries that he will tell the Junta of good government about her.
The military patrol which Miguel sees passing by does not exist according to the state, but, at least as long as we were here, they passed four times every day. A convoy of lorries full of soldiers with their weapons in combat position is routine in these militarized lands.
Moises, the same tzeltal man who met the press ten years ago, is now the autonomous video maker. He takes pictures with his mini camera which are later edited on an Apple Mac. He is currently finishing work on a video about zapatista women and a building is under construction which will house a media project.
As in the rest of the territories in resistance there is a vaccination campaign in the villages. Mothers with children in their arms line up in the autonomous clinic which has been open since 1995. The International Red Cross which was working in the community of San Miguel since 1994 has now left the zone. “They say there is no war here, that there needs to be deaths here for them to stay longer”. Previously the vaccination campaigns were run by the international body. Today the zapatistas run them and the Red Cross only deals with some communities.
With the aim of organising a health service for all the zapatistas, in this zone the families carry a health pass which identifies them as zapatistas. This allows them to have free consultations and free medicine at the clinic. In the small and functional clinical lab the specialist health promoters work on blood analysis, urine tests, tests for parasites and other basic tests. “What we do most is tests for malaria and TB, because these are widespread illnesses in this zone”, explains one of the lab workers.
The clinic is painted in mexican pink and is decorated with murals about the resistance. “Here we scatter the wind of hope, life and dignity”, is written on a mural which shows a snail (caracol) and the face of Zapata. Recently painted, the autonomous health centre deals with about 30 consultations every day. The most common illnesses in the Tzeltal jungle are parasites, malaria, skin infections and TB. They also have a dentist’s consultation room, a pharmacy and more recently hospital rooms. Just as in other Zapatista clinics, indigenous members of the PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) are also seen by the health promoters. “We charge the priistas 25 pesos for the consultation and medicine to recover some of the cost”.
The four autonomous municipalities in the tzeltal zone are Francisco Gomez, San Manuel, Francisco Villa and Ricardo Flores Magon. In all of these there is a health service in resistance and in Francisco Gomez alone 78 health promoters treat basic illnesses in the villages. In spite of these advances, the junta of good government, ‘the Way of the Future’, know that the situation is still far from the ideal. Francisco Villa eg does not have a clinic, not even a pharmacy and its general development is very much behind that of the Ricardo Flores Magon municipality. It is the job of the junta to even out the development.
The main clinic in the zone is supported by an Italian organisation and the ambulance was donated by Doctors without Frontiers. The promotors are not paid a wage and are only supported by being given food. Often, say the autonomous authorities, many promotors do not attend courses because they do not have money for the journey. “They provide a service to the community, but we think they need to be supported more in their work”.
To resolve this and other problems there is a health representative in each of the four autonomous municipalities, who meet every two months to co-ordinate the work in the zone.
Even with delays in the construction of schools and in the preparation of promoters, there are now four municipalities with autonomous education in its communities. The members of the junta say, “Our education comes out of the thoughts of the people. Nothing comes from outside and it’s not like state education where indigenous history is not respected”. The communities in the tzeltal jungle have two centres of learning for promotors of education, one recently opened in the community of La Culebra, in the autonomous municipality of Ricardo Flores Magon and another in La Garrucha in the Francisco Gomez municipality.
Julio who comes from Ricardo Flores Magon explains the meaning of zapatista autonomous education. “It relates to an awareness of the 13 demands of the zapatista struggle. It is not that someone from outside tells us how to make this link. We are the ones who live here, who suffer and struggle here and so it is us who know how everything is related. The people have the knowledge, they know many things and from there consciousness and knowledge is rescued and redeemed.” He explains that one of education’s main aims is to strengthen the indigenous identity and to respond to the needs of the people. “It is not a question of teaching indigenous people to be indigenous, we know that already. What we need to know is our history, our past . . that is real education.
” In our schools we also look at the national situation, at our struggle, the life of our people. The aim of our education is not to depart from the politics and the path of the zapatista struggle and the respect of every community, its language and everything. Our education promotors reflect on the problem of the displacement of the people of Montes Azules, the government’s plans about Plan Puebla Panama; the problem of genetically modified seeds, factory owners, the government’s political counter-attack, the resistance of our people, the San Andres Accords, the war of low intensity, the government’s manipulation by buying communities with aid programmes such as Procede, or school meals or agricultural grants. All of these issues are looked at in our autonomous schools.
An education promotor is chosen by the people who ask them if they want to participate. “You can agree, but also you can say no because you have other work and duties, because autonomy involves other work, not only education”, explains Hortensia an education promotor. She explains that there are promotors who begin this work and don’t know how to read and write and so they begin with nothing . . some are very happy to be promotors and here they grow and learn and later return to their villages. There are also voluntary promotors who are not elected by the village, but come of their own accord. There are those who don’t know anything, the spanish language – nothing, and here they learn everything.”
Like in other indigenous areas, zapatista and non zapatista, women still suffer from inequality. Most of the promotors and pupils in autonomous schools are still male because Hortensia points out, “It costs something to make a change. In our villages women promotors who leave the house to go on courses are still the subject of jokes in the villages, as are their parents or husbands who are asked why they let their daughter go, that she is not doing good things and other such inventions. This is because it is not the custom for women to leave their villages. But this does not get us down even though they make fun of us or make out we are doing things that we are not doing, as promotors we have to continue with our work. We must try hard to see where we are going to, because it is our right. If we leave our work it means that the jokes have beaten us.
“The zapatista women are the first to come out to defend their community when the army enter the villages, they are on the front line, so if they are capable of defending the community then they are capable of studying. We cannot keep our mouths shut about this situation because if we do things won’t change. We are creating a very different kind of education.”
And it was in fact a woman, Rosalinda, who gave the speech on the first anniversary of this junta of good government : “No longer do we need to ask permission to govern ourselves. Already we see what we can do and we see that in this first year of work we have learned a lot. We stand here. We are not going to sell out,” said the only woman in the autonomous government here.
A donation of bicycles has reached the Caracol ‘Resistance towards a new dawn’. Now there is an autonomous workshop which both rents out and repairs bikes, and the money made goes to the autonomous municipality.
A shoe-making workshop has also been operating for some years ….on the walls there is a huge mural of Zapata with an open book , in which you can read “Imagination, creativity, informality, improvisation….”
At the foot of the Third Caracol of the zapatista resistance, you can see an old machine for milling coffee, and, to one side, the peace camp visited all year round by hundreds of people from all over the world. Three women’s co-operatives, a general dormitory, two storehouses, the health clinic, a school and a library complete the buildings.
In this way the zapatistas are building their autonomy, a process which Julio says, “comes from our history, our own customs, our own system of justice, our own cultivations … A process that is like travelling alone. Yes, we know how to travel . . although we may make mistakes, they are our own mistakes and not those imposed on us.”